SEmG

Drummond F13, E14, G14 & P14 class 4-6-0s

Dugald Drummond had a problem: he had a proven ability to design excellent motive power but the LSWR's passenger requirements were increasing exponentially, rolling stock was becoming heavier and faster point-to-point schedules were a pressing need.

He had a history of producing some excellent express locomotives with the conventional 4-4-0 wheel arrangement but clearly something more powerful was required and, having skipped the Atlantic 4-4-2 wheel arrangement, Drummond opted for a 4-6-0.

The first 4-6-0 to be introduced on the London and South Western Railway was the F13 of 1905. They were numbered 330 - 334.The general arrangement of the F13 was that it had 6' 0" driving wheels four 16" x 24" cylinders and a boiler pressure of 175lbs. The inside cylinders were arranged in Drummond's conventional fashion, mounted beneath the smokebox, with slide valves operated by Stephenson valve gear driving onto the leading axle.

However the outside cylinders were mounted well back behind the leading bogie, also with slide valves but driven by an inverted form of Walschaerts valve gear. The exhaust from the inside cylinders discharged in the conventional manner, straight up the blast pipe, but the exhaust from the outside cylinders was led through a junction box which routed some of the steam to the smokebox and some to the feedwater heater in the tender

 

'F13' 4-6-0 Nº334 Leaving Salisbury on the 11.15 am freight to Southampton. on 18th April 1914. This train conveyed coal brought to Salisbury by the GWR. In the summer of 1909, it left Salisbury at 11.25 am and arrived at Eastleigh at 12.40 pm an average speed of 19mph. After an hours wait it trundled on to Bevois Park Yard, Southampton

Ken Nunn, LCGB collection

F13_334
 
Generally Drummond's 4-4-0s had a 10 foot coupled wheelbase which gave room for a long deep firebox with a sloping grate and large ashpan which allowed the fire to get plenty of air.

With the 4-6-0 wheel arrangement such a large space for the firebox would have resulted in an unacceptably long wheelbase. The firebox was therefore positioned directly over the centre and trailing axles giving an almost flat grate and the ashpan was very constricted.

Trial runs in September 1905 were not very encouraging and as a result the cylinders' diameter was reduced to 15 inches. The F13s were introduced to the Salisbury to Exeter route during the summer of 1906 but proved to be total failures as far as passenger work was concerned.

However, the LSWR had two services on which the F13s could be used: these were the overnight "Market Goods" trains from the West Country to London and the Salisbury - Southampton coal trains carrying South Wales coal delivered by the Great Western to Salisbury. In both cases speeds of no more than 30 miles per hour with long intermediate stops were within the F13's capabilities.
 
F13_333 'F13' Nº333 seen near the end of its relatively short career on 19th July 1924. In 1920 it had been upgraded to Urie's specification but the month after this photograph was taken. Nº333 was withdrawn by the Southern Railway for a major rebuild.

Photograph H.C.Casserley

 

After Drummond's sad demise, his successor, Robert Urie, set about upgrading many of his locomotives. This process consisted of removing Drummond's cross water tubes from the firebox which were indicated by an inspection cover on either side of the firebox and installing superheaters. Nº 333 was treated in this way in 1920 and became easily distinguishable by the extended smokebox with securing dogs around the lower half of the smokebox door, stove pipe chimney and boiler feed clacks on the side of the first ring of the boiler. The performance didn't improve significantly.

Following the unsuccessful F13 a further class was introduced in 1907 - the E14 which in the event turned out to have only one member - No 335. The E14's cylinders were increased in size again to 16½ inches and the outside cylinders were given piston valves driven by conventional Walschaerts valve gear. A number of styling changes were made including the introduction of two hinged glass inspection portholes to give access to the valve gear.

 
 

Clearly pride was taken in the construction of this locomotive as a series of photographs were taken during the construction of the solitary 'E14' Nº335. This is an extract.

John Alsop collection

F13_334
 
The result was even worse than the F13s and No 335 gained the nickname of "The Turkey" due to its ability to gobble large quantities of coal. After attempts on passenger work it joined 330 - 334 on mainline goods workings.
 
E14_335 Nº335 at Exmouth Junction. It is running with the 4,500 gallon tender built for 'T7' Class 4-2-2-0 Nº 702 in 1897. This dates this photograph to between 1908 and 1912. Note the forward extension of the splasher over the piston valve of the outside cylinder and also the exhaust pipe below the outside cylinder

Neil Parkhouse collection

 
In 1914 Urie had successfully introduced his H15 class. In late 1914 No 335 was dismantled and the boiler, bogie wheels and sundry other parts were used to construct the 11th H15. In 1924 the Southern Railway rebuilt the five F13s in the same fashion. This,at least, enabled the problem resulting from the restricted ash-pan to be resolved and, although the awkward grate still remained, the performance was in a different league.
 

Nº 335 ex-works following its rebuild as an 'H15'. The raised running plate is clearly seen in contrast to the later Southern Railway conversions

photograph: John Alsop collection

H15_335
   
 
Urie had established a precedent with the rebuilding of the E14 to be included in his H15 class and this was perpetuated by Maunsell by rebuilding locomotives 330 to 334 using the original boiler but now fitted with a Maunsell superheater
 
H15_334 An F13 in its final condition. Nº334 seen here having been rebuilt by Maunsell in 1924 as a 2 cylinder engine and added to the 'H15' class. Note the flat running plate in contrast to the Urie locomotives whose running plate was lifted over the cylinders

Photograph F. E. Mackay

 

In 1908, a further five 4-6-0s were built at Nine Elms. These were classified G14. The major changes from No. 335 were a smaller boiler - now 4 ft 10¾ins in diameter and cylinders reduced to 15 inches. The grate area remained the same and it would seem that some of the problems with the earlier locomotives was the relative proportions of the boiler and the awkward shaped firebox.
 

'G14' Nº 456 outside Eastleigh works apparently having just received a modified tender with a top tank increasing its capacity to 4,500 gallons

photograph: John Alsop collection

G14_456
 
 

The G14s proved to be significant improvement on their predecessors and Nos 453 - 457 were used on the Salisbury to Exeter expresses to reasonable effect. They were seemingly fitted with 4,000 gallon tenders from new but this capacity was later raised to 4.500 gallons by the addition of an additional water tank on top of the tender. Still, however, it seems that the Drummond 4-4-0s were preferred if they were available.They were all withdrawn in 1925 and at the time were purported to have been rebuilt as Maunsell's King Arthur N15 class. However, it seems clear that they were in fact scrapped and only the tenders were used for the new King Arthurs.

In 1911 the P14 class was introduced - Nos 448 - 452. The P14s now had piston valves on all four cylinders. The P14 was fitted with smokebox superheaters* were distinguishable from the G14 by the slightly longer wheelbase and the slightly longer smokebox to accomodate Drummond's smokebox superheater. They were a further improvement on the G14s and were used alongside the G14s and on the Waterloo to Salisbury runs..
F13_333 'P14' Class Nº452 in the old Waterloo station on a West of England express in the summer of 1911. Waterloo station was in the process of being rebuilt at this time.

Photograph John Alsop collection

   

No 449 - subsequently placed on the obsolete list and re-numbered E0449 - was rebuilt with a conventional Eastleigh superheater in 1923. In 1924 NºE0449 was used as a test bed for the crank setting for the Lord Nelson class being proposed at the time. The proposal had been that the cranks of the Lord Nelsons should be set at 135 degrees to give better torque and a more even blast. A set of wheels with the axle cranks set up accordingly was prepared and fitted to Nº E0449 with no further alteration.

'P14' Nº E0449 in Southern Railway livery at Salisbury on 25th October 1925. This locomotive was superheated in 1923 and rebuilt in 1924 with the cranks set at 135 degrees, for tests in conjunction with the design of the 'Lord Nelson' class

photograph:H C Casserley

G14_456
 

The results were very encouraging and the arrangement confirmed for the Lord Nelson design.

According to C.S.Cocks in his "History of Southern Railway Locomotives to 1938" -

"The improvement made by the alteration to Engine Nº449, particularly with regard to the saving in coal, was so marked that it was decided to incorporate the arrangement in the new "Lord Nelson" class. The arrangement provides a more uniform torque and more regular effect on the firebox draught than is customary and enables the engine to be worked more heavily without fear of 'breaking up" the fire."

"In fact the driver scarcely knew his engine after the alteration; he was able to lift heavy trains out of Salisbury yard in a way not possible before. The boiler had a shallow firebox, and only a comparatively light fire could be carried, and therefore it would not stand up to heavy exhaust beats. With eight beats per revolution it was possible to work the engine much harder, especially as the more even turning moment improved the adhesion."

The improvement was confirmed when Lord Nelson Nº 865 "Sir John Hawkins" was rebuilt with conventional crank settings in 1933 and it was found that coal consumption increased by 5 - 7%. Once the experiment was over Nº E0449 was scrapped.

A bit more research clearly went into the next design since indicator shelters were installed on Nº 448. Although no results have been published it seems that due cognisance was taken from them for Drummond's final effort the "T14"

Technical Data

 
Class F13 E14 G14 P14
Numbered 330 - 334 335 453 - 457 448 - 452
Date Introduced 1905 1907 1908 1910
Driving Wheel dia. 6ft 0ins 6ft 0ins 6ft 0ins 6ft 0ins
Cylinders (4) 16 x 24ins 16½ x 24ins 15 x 24ins 15 x 24ins
Boiler Pressure 175psi 175psi 175psi 175psi
Heating Surface - Sq ft
- Tubes 2210 2210 1580 1580
- Firebox 160 160 140 140
- Water Tubes 357 357 200 200
- Smokebox Superheater 114 *
Total 2727 2727 1920 2034
Grate Area Sq Ft 31½ 31½ 31½ 31½
Weight 76ton 13cwt 77ton 18cwt 70ton 19cwt 74ton 13cwt
Wheelbase 26ft 7ins 26ft 10ins 26ft 10ins 27ft 8ins
* Footnote on "Steam Dryers" and "Smokebox Superheaters"
Drummond's so-called "steam drier" was only used on some of the T14s and the D15 4-4-0s but Drummond was clearly thinking along similar lines with the earlier 4-6-0s, as these had multiple steam pipes in the side of the smokebox, leading from the regulator to the cylinders. The General Arrangement is set out in drawings on pages 220-226 of Don Bradley's "Wild Swan Drummond Locomotives" book and show that the E14, G14 and P14 had successively larger numbers of tubes at the side of the smokebox, which would have passed some heat from the smokebox gases to the steam. On the T14, these multiple tubes were replaced by a box in the smokebox, with fire tubes passing through it. It seems it was only this latter device which was referred to as a "steam drier".
 

Thanks to Peter Smith, John Alsop and Neil Parkhouse for permission to use the above material. A more detailed description of Drummond's 4-6-0s can be found in "Railway Archive" Nº6 published by Lightmoor Press

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This page was last updated 16 August 2014

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